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淺談京惠多的兩部晚期短片作品

2020/8/11 — 11:17

《真相與幻象︰形上學入門》(Truth And Illusion: An Introduction To Metaphysics,dir: King Vidor,1964)

《真相與幻象︰形上學入門》(Truth And Illusion: An Introduction To Metaphysics,dir: King Vidor,1964)

推介兩部京惠多(King Vidor)晚期短片作品。

京惠多(或譯金維多)是荷里活大師級導演,他的《大軍啟行》(The Big Parade,1925)、《鴉群彩鳳》(The Crowd,1928)、《農為邦本》(Our Daily Bread,1934)、《母心》(Stella Dallas,1937)、《太陽浴血記》(Duel in the Sun,1946)、《慾潮》(The Fountainhead,1949)等劇情片全是不可多得的傑作,馬田史高西斯等當代大師也對他推崇備至。他在晚年轉向了較玄奧的研究,例如這部約半小時的短片,就可以視為他對「主觀唯心主義」(subjective idealism)的探索,片末似乎也表達了他對物質主義的隱憂。這部短片的思想內容,我沒有能力評論,但以詩意的生活畫面,有趣的蒙太奇對照,大談我們的「真相與幻象」,倒是非常值得觀賞與借鑒。以下是《真相與幻象》的結語︰

“It would appear therefore that mind is substance and matter illusion. As you watch this film or watch anything else know it is mind which is accepting or rejecting, or interpreting, or for that matter forming it. If you like matter can be considered but only as concept but in that case it becomes mind and not material substance. So in reality we must conclude that all is mind from the rolling of the worlds to a potato patch. Probably nothing is more important to the progress of humanity out of its still primitive limitations than the understanding that consciousness is fundamental to experience. Whether experience is subjective in mind or is an external phenomenon is something humanity must decide. The world may well be at a crossroads where a decision must be made."

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◆《真相與幻象》這片名的中譯是我自行翻的,如不準確,歡迎指正。全片可在網上看到︰

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《隱喻》(The Metaphor,dir: King Vidor,1980)

《隱喻》(The Metaphor,dir: King Vidor,1980)

這是京惠多的最後作品,據說生前仍在製作中,只是半完成品,歷來罕有放映,也沒有發行過影碟。《隱喻》其實是一部「大師對談」的紀錄片——美國著名畫家安德魯懷斯(Andrew Wyeth)原來是京惠多影迷,寄信向對方說其傑作《大軍啟行》(The Big Parade,1925)是自己畫作的靈感來源,京惠多讀信後深受感動,動身拜訪(有趣地,是前輩往見後輩),這部紀錄片就是兩人的會面紀錄。懷斯當時已逾六十歲,名滿天下,但對著京惠多,直如小孩般興奮與崇敬,他說自己已看過《大軍啟行》達 180 次(延伸閱讀),不似虛言,一直在說影片對他的影響(懷斯妻子也在旁分享重要的觀察),鏡頭捕捉他明亮的眼神、自信的手勢,也似是一幅幅油畫。京惠多當時八十多歲了,數年後便離開人世,但精神矍鑠,後輩盛讚,他也沒有特別自滿,甚至笑說對方的畫作才是自己的靈感泉源。《隱喻》穿插著《大軍啟行》的片段與懷斯的幾幅重要畫作(如《Winter 1946》),兩人互相評論著對方的作品,都認同重要的是「畫面」,創作時總是因為一件微物、一個細節、一種氣氛、一幅圖像而起,並非刻意為了表達甚麼「意義」,但細心經營,成品自能延伸出無限意義。對談中兩人兩度談到對「隱喻」的看法,最後京惠多讀出朋友的心得︰“Arts constantly reminds us the benefits of recognizing and evaluating relationships"(我聽英語對白直錄的,未必準確,片源嵌實了法語字幕,大家可對照看看),這句話也有意思。題外話︰懷斯的畫作也啟發後來不少導演,例如電影詩人馬力克(Terrence Malick)的傑作《夢斷天涯》(Days of Heaven,1978),影迷們應該熟知了(參考文章可見此)。

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