立場新聞 Stand News

沙地阿拉伯辦沙漠國際藝術節 參展人被斥為極權化粧

2020/2/7 — 15:28

圖片素材來源:Desert X and RCU

圖片素材來源:Desert X and RCU

1 月 31 日,一個名為 Desert X Al Ula 的藝術節,在沙地阿拉伯的 Al Ula 沙漠舉行。展覽邀得不少著名藝術家創作搶眼作品,如藝術團隊 Superflex 就在沙漠做了一個三坐位鞦韆;但另一方面,藝術節也被狠批為沙地阿拉伯政權塗脂抹粉,因為該國政府人權成績惡劣,2018 年,殺害記者卡舒吉一事更成國際新聞。對此,有份參展的藝術家 Lita Albuquerque 昨日就在 artnet 的訪問回應爭議,表示雖然很多人對她參展反感,但她仍堅持己見,認為 Desert X 是沙地阿拉伯向國際開放的「歷史時刻」。

Desert X 為一大型藝術節,主要展示場域特定藝術 (Site-specific art) 及大地藝術 (Land art),原兩年一度於美國南加洲的 Coachella Valley 舉行,今年首次舉辦沙地阿拉伯版,是為該國首個同類型藝術活動。Desert X Al Ula 展期由 1 月 31 日起至 3 月 7 日止。

Desert X Al Ula 展出 14 件作品,參展藝術家包括來自哥本哈根的 Superflex、美國藝術家 Lita Albuquerque 及沙地阿拉伯藝術家 Nasser Al Salem 等。作品不乏「趣怪」之作,如在沙漠上設跳彈床、三坐位鞦韆等。作品雖然「好玩」,但也有鼓勵觀眾與沙漠及當地文化對話的意味。例如藝術家 el Seed 的雕塑作品(看起來像一堆阿拉伯文字堆在地上,觀眾可在裝置下面通過),就旨在回應昔日穿過 Al Ula 沙漠的商路。

廣告

Lita Albuquerque, NAJMA (She Placed One Thousand Suns On The Transparent Overlays Of Space), installation view at Desert X AlUla, photo by Lance Gerber, courtesy the artist, RCU and Desert.

Lita Albuquerque, NAJMA (She Placed One Thousand Suns On The Transparent Overlays Of Space), installation view at Desert X AlUla, photo by Lance Gerber, courtesy the artist, RCU and Desert.

廣告

Superflex, One Two Three Swing! Installation view at Desert X AlUla, photo Lance Gerber, courtesy the artist, RCU and Desert X

Superflex, One Two Three Swing! Installation view at Desert X AlUla, photo Lance Gerber, courtesy the artist, RCU and Desert X

eL Seed, Mirage installation view at Desert X AlUla, photo by Lance Gerber, courtesy the artist, RCU and Desert X.

eL Seed, Mirage installation view at Desert X AlUla, photo by Lance Gerber, courtesy the artist, RCU and Desert X.

Manal AlDowayan, Now You See Me, Now You Don’t, installation view at Desert X AlUla. Photo by Lance Gerber, courtesy of the artist, RCU, and Desert X

Manal AlDowayan, Now You See Me, Now You Don’t, installation view at Desert X AlUla. Photo by Lance Gerber, courtesy of the artist, RCU, and Desert X

Sherin Guirguis, Kholkhal Aliaa installation view at Desert X AlUla, photo by Lance Gerber, courtesy the artist, RCU and Desert X.

Sherin Guirguis, Kholkhal Aliaa installation view at Desert X AlUla, photo by Lance Gerber, courtesy the artist, RCU and Desert X.

Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim, ‘Falling Stones Garden’ installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim, ‘Falling Stones Garden’ installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Zahrah AlGhamdi, ‘Glimpses of the Past’. installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Zahrah AlGhamdi, ‘Glimpses of the Past’. installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Rashed AlShashaia, ‘Concise Passage’ installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Rashed AlShashaia, ‘Concise Passage’ installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Rayyane Tabet, ‘Steel Rings’
from the series The Shortest Distance Between Two Points installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Rayyane Tabet, ‘Steel Rings’
from the series The Shortest Distance Between Two Points installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Muhannad Shono, ‘The Lost’installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Muhannad Shono, ‘The Lost’installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Nadim Karam, ‘On Parade’. installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Nadim Karam, ‘On Parade’. installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Wael Shawky, ‘Dictums: Manqia II’. installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Wael Shawky, ‘Dictums: Manqia II’. installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Wael Shawky, ‘Dictums: Manqia II’. installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

Wael Shawky, ‘Dictums: Manqia II’. installation view at Desert X Al Ula. Photography: Lance Gerber. Courtesy of the artist, Desert X and RCU

被質疑替極權塗脂抹粉 有如「請希特拉去飲茶」

雖然藝術節沒有談政治,政治卻離不開藝術。Desert X 的消息發布後,環球藝術界爭議,到底藝術家應邀參展,是否合乎道德?

問題在,Desert X Al Ula 受沙地阿拉伯贊助,而沙地阿拉伯政府與中國同樣,近年不乏侵害人權的問題。女權被漠視、外勞被剝削、社運被打壓,不一而足。最轟動的莫過於 2018 年,沙地阿拉伯政府被指殺害並肢解記者卡舒吉 (Jamal Khashoggi)。而  Desert X Al Ula,則被視為該國政府向國際社會展示「軟實力」的策略。

環球藝術界對是否應該參與 Desert X Al Ula 爭議不絕。藝評人 Christopher Knight 就稱 Desert X Al Ula 為「傷風敗俗 (morally corrupt)」的活動。三名 Desert X Al Ula 董事,包括時裝設計師 Tristan Milanovich、策展人 Yael Lipschutz 及藝術家 Ed Ruscha 已因拒絕為極權塗脂抹粉而辭職,後者更形容 Desert X Al Ula 有如「請希特拉去飲茶 (inviting Hitler to a tea party)」。

儘管如此,仍有董事、策展人、藝術家,繼續參與。主張「The show must go on(活動仍要繼續進行)」的聲音中,有人認為藝術就是藝術,不應受政治立場影響;也有人認為杯葛活動沒有意義,反而要參與,才能透過對話帶來改變。Desert X 藝術總監 Neville Wakefield 接受外媒訪問時就表示,「現時的董事會...相信藝術能夠帶來改變,締造對話與交流。」參展藝術家 Lita Albuquerque 稱,Christopher Knight 的文章發表後,有些人與她絕交,另一些人則對她仍參展表示震驚,她自己也感到巨大壓力,甚至一度想過退展。「但我不能容許這種東西(評論文章)阻止我成為歷史一部份。」她認為,Desert X Al Ula 是歷史一頁,因為這是沙地阿拉伯首次接納這種國際合作藝術活動。

另一參展藝術家 Muhannad Shono 亦否認自己是政府文宣機器一部份,又說自己的創作意念完全沒有受到質問或審查。「沒有西方媒體關心我的作品,所有人想談的都是爭議,而非藝術。」他希望觀眾,特別是以「希特拉茶會」形容該活動的 Ed Ruscha 前來觀展,觀看他們的創作。

相關報道

Dezeenartnet

發表意見