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新型冠狀病毒疫情系列之六 — 各國對策

2020/3/21 — 18:27

無論人們如何爭議病毒命名,中國已經不是關注中心,重點已是外地,或西方社會。今次是兩個社會制度在世界範疇的比拼。中共的極權主義已經出了牌,現在要看西方社會了。

廣告

中間路線

南韓在疫症初期曾經受到關注,但它很快將疫情控制了。在疫情前,全世界的政府都在這兩種侵犯個人權利的行為(個人信息暴露和人們自由流動限制)之間面臨艱難的抉擇。 南韓選擇了前者,而法國和意大利則選擇了後者。 前者需要必要的社會基礎和市民習慣於容忍一定程度的監視的文化,這不是一朝一夕就能建立的。南韓人習慣服從政府安排。

廣告

South Korea’s success in controlling disease is due to its acceptance of surveillance

南韓的處理手法脫離了東方集體主義與西方個人主義的對立。 它的手法有三大特點:

  1. 動用其特別密集的市內閉路電視;
  2. 用人們的手機跟蹤人流;
  3. 南韓基本上是無現金城市,政府跟蹤信用卡活動。

南韓每天進行一萬五千個病毒測試,成為中國之後的全球第三大以人口計的最多病毒測試國家。南韓防疫中心收集了這些個人數據,不單止追踪被感染者,還動用大數據追蹤源頭,追蹤未來的可能受感染者。它還將城市病例密集點公開,讓市民更加放心。南韓是小數沒有公眾搶購日用品的國家。 (註1)

日本

日本的人口老化全球最高,在疫情前它有大量大陸旅客,但它的受感染病例低於一千,死亡率為3.5%低於全球平均的3.8%。日本的感染數量在世界上排名第九,次於中國,意大利,伊朗,韓國,西班牙,法國,德國和美國。

COVID-19 cases top 1,500 in Japan as ministry releases cluster map

日本政府發布了在線地圖確定了全國15個感染群,提醒市民關注。

Will Japan's virus testing policy be enough to flatten the curve?

日本現大量自行制做測試工具。首相安倍晉三保證,日本有能力每天檢查約6,000個樣本,到月底該數字將增加到8,000。據日本厚生省統計,在1月15日至3月6日期間,日本機構檢測了19,420個樣本。

它採用由一家中國公司開發的15分鐘測試套件,該公司每天能夠提供10,000個測試。另一家精密設備公司,Shimadzu Corp.,現在開發一種測試方法,跳過了從病毒中提取DNA的程序,該程序可以在一小時內檢測到新病毒,計劃每月生產約50,000套套件。 (註2)

美國

Coronavirus in the U.S.: Latest Map and Case Count

美國在數週的延誤和測試套件短缺之後,在最近幾天越來越多的州和私人實驗室開始對冠狀病毒進行測試。 (註3)

英國

Government to pay up to 80% of workers' wages

英國政府支付因冠狀病毒大流行而無法工作的僱員的工資。它將為雇主留用的員工支付薪水的80%,每月工資資助可高達2500英鎊。英國財政大臣裡希·蘇納克說,這是英國“史無前例”的措施。英國關閉了酒吧和餐館。(註4)

意大利

Italy's coronavirus toll tops 4,000 after 627 new deaths in one day

意大利取代了中國,成為全球最重災區,政府已基本上進行了軍管。在感染者中,意大利的死亡率為8.6%,大大高於其他大多數國家。醫學專家們歸因於意大利的人口老化。在意大利的致命的個案中,絕大多數涉及長期病患的老年人。意大利首批3,200名病患死者的平均年齡為78.5歲。其中將近49%的人患有三個或三個以上的長期疾病。死者中只有1.2%沒有其他疾病。(註5)

西班牙

What Spain is doing to keep people in lockdown during coronavirus crisis

西班牙限制戶外活動。違規者將被處以罰款,甚至被捕。西班牙在五天中關起的違規人數達到157人。 僅在馬德里,就有907人因違反規定而被罰款。(註六)

德國

Bavaria and Saarland first German states to impose lockdowns

截至週五晚,德國最大的州巴伐利亞州已確認了3,000例病例。

德國巴伐利亞州州長馬庫斯·索德表示:“從今晚的午夜開始,將限制為期兩週的活動。……警方將監視並檢查所有這一切……任何違反規定的人都將受到巨額罰款。”

他補充說,將關閉1300萬人口的巴伐利亞州的餐飲業,不允許公民在公眾聚會,例外是上班,必要的購物,去看醫生和藥房,義工,探訪伴侶-以及在戶外運動,但只能獨自或與家庭成員一起鍛煉。醫院在大多數情況下禁止探病。 (註七)

法國

Paris closes riverside walkways, Nice shuts iconic promenade to curb coronavirus spread

巴黎市長和法國南部城市尼斯市長上週五表示,隨著法國確診病例超過10,000例,他們將關閉其城市中的公園,河堤長廊和遊人行道。

法國首都週五說,由于冠狀病毒感染的擔憂,法國首都正在關閉塞納河沿岸長廊,榮軍院的草坪和埃菲爾鐵塔周圍的戰神廣場公園。(註八)

歐州其他區

Coronavirus in Europe: An inside view of how the situation compares in different countries

瑞士相對平靜,這是因為瑞士人通常接受到紀律,尤其是對其衛生當局製定的規則。瑞典政府的相對權力有限,防止病毒傳播的大多數決定是公共衛生署制定,公共衛生署認為在此階段關閉學校不是有效措施。

在短短的一周內,挪威從寬容轉變為焦慮。政府關閉了所有托兒所,學校和大學,並建議人們家居工作。酒吧和髪廊被下令關閉,餐館仍然可以營業,但建議彼此之間保持一米的距離。(註9)

伊朗

伊朗對疫情的反應最接近中國大陸,儘管伊朗官方呼籲人們在為期兩週的伊朗春節(諾魯茲,3月20日開始)期間避免外遊。

Leader calls for 'pick-up in production' in New Year

但它的最高領袖鲁霍拉·穆萨维·霍梅尼在新年祝福中呼籲人們“全力生產”,隻字不提防疫:“生產問題是今年的關鍵問題。 因此,我宣布以下聲明作為全民的座右銘:“生產上大躍進”。 每個人都應努力提高國家的產量。 這是上天意旨,解決經濟問題,抵禦外敵。”

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備註

註一

The difference between the South Korean approach and that of European countries doesn’t represent the simple cliché of eastern collectivism versus western individualism. In fact, information exposure can prevent the need for a lockdown of individuals’ movements.

In this way, governments around the world are facing a hard choice between these two violations of individual rights (information exposure and movement restriction). South Korea has chosen the former, but France and Italy had to choose the latter. The former requires the necessary infrastructure and a culture that tolerates a certain level of surveillance, neither of which can be created overnight.

註二

Japan has the ninth-largest number of infections in the world, behind China, Italy, Iran, South Korea, Spain, France, Germany and the United States, according to a Kyodo News tally based on information including data released by each government.

Authorities have identified 15 clusters of infections, according to the health ministry, which released an online map showing where they are located in the country as of noon Sunday.

Will Japan's virus testing policy be enough to flatten the curve?

In a news conference Saturday, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe gave assurances that Japan has the capacity to check around 6,000 samples daily and that the number will increase to 8,000 by the end of the month. But testing capacity varies from place to place.

註三

More state and private labs have started running tests for the coronavirus in recent days, increasing the capacity to identify new patients after weeks of delays and test kit shortages. Officials in New York State announced more than 2,900 new cases on Friday morning alone, more than any other state has identified to date.

註四

The government will pay the wages of employees unable to work due to the coronavirus pandemic, in a radical move aimed at protecting people's jobs.

It will pay 80% of salary for staff who are kept on by their employer, covering wages of up to £2,500 a month.

The "unprecedented" measures will stop workers being laid off due to the crisis, chancellor Rishi Sunak said.

Firms have warned the virus could see them collapse, wiping out thousands of jobs, as life in the UK is put on hold.

Mr Sunak said closing pubs and restaurants would have a "significant impact" on businesses.

註五

Italy's death rate of 8.6 percent among those registered with infections is significantly higher than in most other countries.

Medical experts have mainly attributed this to Italy's older than average population.

The overwhelming majority of Italy's fatal cases involved elderly people with at least one pre-existing condition.

The National Health Institute (ISS) said Friday that the average age of Italy first 3,200 victims was 78.5.

Almost 49 percent of them had three or more pre-existing conditions.

Just 1.2 percent of those who died had no other ailments.

註六

The Ministry of Health today announced there are 19,998 total cases in Spain, with 1,141 patients in intensive care and a further 1,002 who have already died from the virus.

Whilst most have obeyed the government shutdown, for some Spaniards being confined in side was just too much and those who were caught venturing outside without valid reason have been issued with fines, or even arrested.

The number of arrests of those caught disobeying the measures during the first five days of lock down amounted to 157 people by Friday morning. In Madrid alone, 907 people have been issued with fines for breaking the lockdown rules.

註七

"From midnight tonight for a provisional period of two weeks, there will be fundamental restrictions on going out," Bavaria's state premier Markus Söder said, while Tobias Hans of tiny Saarland on the French border said he would follow suit.

"We are not locking Bavarians in but we are winding down public life almost completely," Söder said at a press conference, adding that restaurants in the region of 13 million people would be closed and citizens would no longer be allowed to meet in groups outside.

Bavaria, Germany's largest state, had over 3,000 confirmed cases as of Friday evening, while Saarland along the French border counted over 250.

In Bavaria the only exceptions are to the curfew will be going to work, necessary shopping, visits to doctors and pharmacies, assisting others, visits from partners - and also exercise outside, but only alone or with other household members.

Visits to hospitals are also now forbidden in most circumstances and Söder urged employers to allow people to work from home.

"The police will monitor and check all of this...anyone who breaks the rules can expect huge fines."

註八

The mayors of Paris and the southern French city of Nice on Friday said they would be closing parks, promenades and walkways in their cities to limit the spread of the coronavirus outbreak as the number of confirmed cases in France passed the 10,000 mark.

The French capital was shutting down popular promenades along the Seine river, the lawns of Les Invalides and the Champ de Mars park around the Eiffel Tower because of coronavirus infection worries, the prefecture said on Friday.

The closure took effect at 1500 CET (1300 GMT) Friday and will last through the weekend, with all gatherings or passage through these areas forbidden, the prefecture said. It said that too many people were disregarding countrywide lockdown measures and frequenting these areas despite stringent lockdown rules introduced across France at the start of this week.

French health authorities on Friday reported 78 new deaths from coronavirus, taking the total to 450 or an increase of 21 percent, the toll rising less sharply than the previous two days.

註九

Still, there is no sense of general chaos or frenzy, even though a state of emergency declared earlier this week means people are mostly confined to their homes and all businesses except for food stores and pharmacies have been closed.

That sense of relative calm prevails because the Swiss are generally disciplined and inclined to follow the rules – especially those set out by their health authorities.

Unlike in many other countries, even for example neighbouring Denmark, the Swedish government holds comparatively limited powers and most of the main decisions to prevent the spread of the virus are made by the Public Health Agency, which does not believe closing schools at this stage would be an effective measure. But that does not mean it won't happen at all.

In just a week, Norway went from a state of gentle concern to anxiously awaiting things to get worse. Last week, the government closed all nurseries, schools and universities and told everyone who can to work from home.

Bars and hair dressers have closed down, but restaurants remain open and people can still go out for a meal (if they follow the health advice and keep one metre distance between themselves) - keeping in mind that Norwegians traditionally rarely eat out (it’s very expensive) compared to their southern European neighbours.

註十

19,644 infected with COVID-19 in Iran

According to Iran’s Deputy Health Minister Alireza Raeisi, a total of 6,745 have recovered and discharged from hospitals so far. He went on to say that the death toll has hit 1,433, jumping 149 from yesterday.

Officials are calling on the people to avoid any trip during the two-week New Year holidays ( Noruz, started March 20)  as it may potentially speed up the virus outbreak.

Leader calls for 'pick-up in production' in New Year

So, in my opinion, the issue of production is the pivotal issue this year. Therefore, I declare the following statement as the motto of this year: “A pick-up in production.” Everybody should make efforts to boost production in the country. God willing, this concept should be considerably tangible throughout the year. If that happens, I hope that, God willing, economic problems will being to be solved.

發表意見