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特朗普如何間接回應彭定康的主權移交告別演說

2020/5/30 — 15:56

1997 年 6 月 30 日,最後一任港督彭定康於香港主權移交儀式上致辭。(Photo by Peter Turnley/Corbis/VCG via Getty Images)

1997 年 6 月 30 日,最後一任港督彭定康於香港主權移交儀式上致辭。(Photo by Peter Turnley/Corbis/VCG via Getty Images)

特朗普今天演說提到香港,最後一段令人驚喜,白宮寫手特別為香港寫下煽情的文字,當中更特別談到 1997 年 6 月 30 日的細節:

“More than two decades ago on a rainy night in 1997, British soldiers lowered the Union flag and Chinese soldiers raised the Chinese flag in Hong Kong. The people of Hong Kong felt simultaneously proud of their Chinese heritage and their unique Hong Kong identity. The people of Hong Kong hoped that in the years and decades to come, China would increasingly come to resemble its most radiant and dynamic city. The rest of the world was electrified by a sense of optimism that Hong Kong was a glimpse into China’s future, not that Hong Kong would grow into a reflection of China’s past.“

其實,英國人離開當天,最後一任港督彭定康在雨天中發別演說,當中內容,其實不少可與今天特朗普的演說互相呼應。白宮說不定在執筆前在 YouTube 重溫了彭定康的演說。彭定康的演說當中,有這麼兩段:

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“This is a Chinese city, a very Chinese city with British characteristics. No dependent territory has been left more prosperous, none with such a rich texture and fabric of civil society, professions, churches, newspapers, charities, civil servants of the highest probity and the most steadfast commitment to the public good.

I have no doubt that, with people here holding on to these values which they cherish, Hong Kong's star will continue to climb. Hong Kong's values are decent values. They are universal values. They are the values of the future in Asia as elsewhere, a future in which the happiest and the richest communities, and the most confident and the most stable too, will be those that best combine political liberty and economic freedom as we do here today.”

兩個演說,有三點共通:

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1. 定義香港身份

兩者都嘗試定義香港這個處於中西方漩渦的城市,彭定康說香港是「a Chinese city with British characteristics」,除了是一貫彭式幽默,諷刺中國當年強調自己是「中國特色社會主義」(Socialism with Chinese characteristics)外,也希望重申即使英國統治了香港 150 年,這裡依然是一個華人社會。

特朗普演說中則這樣去形容香港:「The people of Hong Kong felt simultaneously proud of their Chinese heritage and their unique Hong Kong identity」,也是同時強調這裡的華人傳統,以及香港人的獨特身分。

2. 肯定香港的繁華多元

彭定康在演說中提到,香港是史上最繁榮及多元的殖民地,「No dependent territory has been left more prosperous」,後來更點名稱讚香港甚富活力的公民社會、學校、教會、媒體等。特朗普的演說中,也提到香港是「radiant and dynamic city」,證明西方社會對香港的定格,總離不開國際金融中心、極富活力和敢於表達自我的城市。

3. 香港之於中國及亞洲的期盼

我認為這段意義最重要,彭定康如此提到:「Hong Kong’s values are decent values. They are universal values. They are the values of the future in Asia」上世紀九十年代,正值冷戰完結,東歐等地掀起民主浪潮,但那時最熱切的討論,則是亞洲國家是否適合民主政制,時任新加坡總理李光耀便提出「亞洲價值」,即經濟自由但政治威權,才符合亞洲的國情。彭定康顯然不同意,而且認為香港同時兼備自由市場,以及愈來愈開放的民主政治,才是亞洲的未來,是亞洲國家要仿傚的典範。

這份對香港的期盼,也是西方各國多年來對中國的想像,希望中國擁抱自由市場後,便會逐漸擁抱民主政制,「結束一黨專政」,後來允許中國加入世貿、中國成為第二大經濟體,是大家耳熟能詳的事。 由香港作點,連上中國的線,繼而影響亞洲這一面,是西方世界的打算。

顯然,這算盤完全打不響,中國經濟發達之餘,政治自由卻愈加收窄,而這套自由市場加上極權管治,在亞洲甚至全世界都有價有市,民主正式退潮。

西方世界近年逐漸醒覺,中國不可能政治自由化,美國在特朗普牽頭下,制裁中國舉措不斷,不得讓中國予取予攜,今天一句「The rest of the world was electrified by a sense of optimism that Hong Kong was a glimpse into China’s future, not that Hong Kong would grow into a reflection of China’s past」更是蓋棺定論,二十多年來對香港作為自由世界橋頭堡的良好意願,已經落空。

美國總統特朗普(資料圖片,來源:美國白宮網站)

美國總統特朗普(資料圖片,來源:美國白宮網站)

 

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