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香港人權與民主法案可以幫助我們多少?

2019/9/9 — 17:03

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香港人權與民主法案2019,似乎是香港反政府運動的稻草。今天的龐大遊行到美國領事館說明這是香港的民意。文章的立論是,若期望這條法案有利於香港,它需要進行大幅修訂!

  這條法案現在放在美國國會的外交事務委員會審議,尚需到美國眾議院和參議院的辯論及通過。若參議院對眾議院提交上來的議案有修動,需要發還眾議院辯論,最後再通過參議院,總統有十天時間決定是否簽署,讓它成為正式美國法案。

The legislative process in a nutshell:

廣告

First, a Representative sponsors a bill. 

The bill is then assigned to a committee for study. 

廣告

If released by the committee, the bill is put on a calendar to be voted on, debated or amended. 

If the bill passes by simple majority (218 of 435), the bill moves to the Senate. 

In the Senate, the bill is assigned to another committee and, if released, debated and voted on. 

If the Senate makes changes, the bill must return to the House for concurrence.

The resulting bill returns to the House and Senate for final approval. 

The President then has 10 days to veto the final bill or sign it into law.

  這條法案是排名第四最多人瀏覽的Most-Viewed Bills,不管這些瀏覽是否來自華人,可見它較為觸目。它尚未列入九月份的國會的預備辯論項目之中(put on a calendar to be voted on)Text of Bills for the Week of Sep. 9, 2019,Items that may be considered under suspension of the rules,Items that may be considered pursuant to a rule。這條法案最後是否通過,可能遲於中美貿談判的最後結果。它可能政治姿勢多於實際,因為:(一)這條草案需要大幅修訂;(二)它的起草為草率;(三),它的執行條件過於籠統,並不容易執行。

香港人權和民主法案

 它在眾議院的編號為R3289,在參議院的編號為S1838。現逐項討:

Sec 3: Statement of Policy

1(D) Hong Kong must remain sufficiently autonomous from the People’s Republic of China to justify a different treatment under a particular law of the United States, or any provision thereof, from that accorded the People’s Republic of China;

它的第1D要求香港享有足夠的自治,否則美國不給香港特別優惠。所謂足夠自治是美國國務卿所提交的報告是否認為香港的政治狀況符合中英聯合聲明和基本法。這是最關鍵和最後的一步,它意味著美國在最壞情況,可能將香港等同中國的其他城巿,將香港人等同於其他大陸仔。

  這裏有一個極端情況要注意,假若香港的政治情況進一步惡化,但大陸仍然稱香港為一國兩制,可是美國認為香港已變為一國一制。假若這時的香港巿民奮起反抗,由於這條法案美國可能對香港的反抗運動落井下石。

Sec 3

(4) to support the establishment of a genuine democratic option to freely and fairly nominate and elect the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, and the establishment by 2020 of open and direct democratic elections for all members of the Hong Kong Legislative Council;

法案支持香港在2020的立法會選舉全面直接。這明顯是不可能的事,其唯一可能是由習近平直接推翻基本法和人大決定,即以不民主的方式達致民主。由此可見,這條草案有點草率。

Section 206 簽證限制

“(a) Statement Of Policy.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, applications for visas to enter, study, or work in the United States, which are submitted by otherwise qualified applicants who resided in Hong Kong in 2014, shall not be denied on the basis of the applicant’s arrest, detention, or other adverse government action taken as a result of the applicant’s participation in nonviolent protest activities related to the electoral process, internationally recognized human rights, protecting an independent judiciary, or the rule of law.

  它保障了雨傘運動的參與者不因被捕而妨礙其到美國學習或工作。但要留意,它只保障和理非的示威者。事實上,整條法案將勇武抗爭者排除在保障之外。我們看到勇武派似乎十分踴躍地支持這條法案,筆者勸諭他們宜仔細看看這條法案草擬文本。勇武派需要派人到華府游說放火和破壞地鐵設施是nonviolent protest activities 。

Section 6

SEC. 6. PROTECTING UNITED STATES CITIZENS AND OTHERS FROM RENDITION TO MAINLAND CHINA.

(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:

(1) The proposed amendments to Hong Kong’s Fugitive Ordinance, if enacted—
 

  這段是針對送中條例的,由於林鄭已正式撤回草案,法案的第六段變為過時。林鄭在這裏為自己拆了彈。

SEC. 7. IDENTIFICATION OF PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR ABDUCTIONS AND FOR OTHER ACTIONS TO SUPPRESS BASIC FREEDOMS IN HONG KONG.

(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter in conjunction with the publication of the report required under section 301 of the Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992 (22 U.S.C. 5731) the President shall submit, to the appropriate congressional committees, a list containing the name of each person who the President determines, based on credible information, is responsible for—

(1) the surveillance, abduction, detention, abuse, or forced confession of Gui Minhai, Lee Bo, Lam Wing-kee, Lui Bo, or Cheung Chi-ping, all of whom are involved in the operation of the Mighty Current Publishing House based in Hong Kong;

  這是法案針對的不受歡迎名單,它主要提及的銅鑼灣書店。可是銅鑼灣書店中的五個主角只有林榮基高調回應。

  而且它的針對行為是監視、綁架、扣留、濫權和強迫認罪。在銅鑼灣書店案中,幹這些勾當的是大陸人,那裏找他們放進名單制裁呢?可見這法案執行并不容。

  這名單似乎與現時的反送中關連不大。

SEC. 8. INADMISSIBILITY OF CERTAIN ALIENS AND FAMILY MEMBERS.

(a) In General.—Section 212(a)(2) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(2)) is amended by adding at the end the following:
 

“(J) CERTAIN ALIENS RESPONSIBLE FOR ABDUCTIONS OR EXTRADITIONS FROM HONG KONG.—Any alien included in the list submitted by the President under section 7(a) of the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act of 2019 is inadmissible.”.

  這裏也是針對港人被強迫遣返大陸的問題,它與反送中運動出現的問題關連不大。因為,在可見的將來,被補的示威者不見得會被引渡或遣返大陸。

結語

  這條法案並不如一般人的想法,可以用來制裁何君堯這類建制人物。事實上,我們不應支持政治審訊,這違反了美國的立國原則。

  筆者認為目前草案並非符合港人的最大利益。運動發展至今,我們看到中美關係緩和,對香港抗爭有。

  在目前,特朗普能夠發揮其對習近平的影響,中國的鴿派較易發揮影響。由於中美仍然進行談判,我們看到中共至今未出解放軍。

  但是法案超出了美國對中國的經濟要求,這條法案會令中美關係進一步緊張,它不利於緩和香港局勢。

筆者認為,若期望這條法案有利於香港,它需要進行大幅修訂。

附錄:

Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act of 2019

6th CONGRESS

1st Session

  1. R. 3289

To amend the Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992 and for other purposes.

SEC. 3. STATEMENT OF POLICY.

It is the policy of the United States—

(1) to reaffirm the principles and objectives set forth in the United States-Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102–383), namely that—

(D) Hong Kong must remain sufficiently autonomous from the People’s Republic of China to justify a different treatment under a particular law of the United States, or any provision thereof, from that accorded the People’s Republic of China;

(4) to support the establishment of a genuine democratic option to freely and fairly nominate and elect the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, and the establishment by 2020 of open and direct democratic elections for all members of the Hong Kong Legislative Council;

SEC. 205. SECRETARY OF STATE REPORT REGARDING THE AUTONOMY OF HONG KONG.

“(a) Report.—

“(1) IN GENERAL.—The Secretary of State shall annually certify to Congress, in conjunction with the report required under section 301, whether Hong Kong is sufficiently autonomous to justify special treatment by the United States for bilateral agreements and programs, in accordance with this Act, including the degree to which Hong Kong’s autonomy has been eroded due to actions taken by the Government of China that are inconsistent with its commitments in the Basic Law and the Joint Declaration and the impact of such erosion on specific areas of cooperation with the United States, including on political rights, civil liberties, rule of law, freedom of information, religious freedom, and democratic governance in Hong Kong.

“SEC. 206. TREATMENT OF HONG KONG APPLICANTS FOR VISAS TO STUDY OR WORK IN THE UNITED STATES.

“(a) Statement Of Policy.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, applications for visas to enter, study, or work in the United States, which are submitted by otherwise qualified applicants who resided in Hong Kong in 2014, shall not be denied on the basis of the applicant’s arrest, detention, or other adverse government action taken as a result of the applicant’s participation in nonviolent protest activities related to the electoral process, internationally recognized human rights, protecting an independent judiciary, or the rule of law.

SEC. 5. ANNUAL REPORT ON ENFORCEMENT OF UNITED STATES EXPORT CONTROL AND SANCTIONS LAWS BY HONG KONG.SEC. 6. PROTECTING UNITED STATES CITIZENS AND OTHERS FROM RENDITION TO MAINLAND CHINA.

(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:

  1. The proposed amendments to Hong Kong’s Fugitive Ordinance, if enacted—

SEC. 7. IDENTIFICATION OF PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR ABDUCTIONS AND FOR OTHER ACTIONS TO SUPPRESS BASIC FREEDOMS IN HONG KONG.

(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter in conjunction with the publication of the report required under section 301 of the Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992 (22 U.S.C. 5731) the President shall submit, to the appropriate congressional committees, a list containing the name of each person who the President determines, based on credible information, is responsible for—

  1. the surveillance, abduction, detention, abuse, or forced confession of Gui Minhai, Lee Bo, Lam Wing-kee, Lui Bo, or Cheung Chi-ping, all of whom are involved in the operation of the Mighty Current Publishing House based in Hong Kong;

SEC. 8. INADMISSIBILITY OF CERTAIN ALIENS AND FAMILY MEMBERS.

(a) In General.—Section 212(a)(2) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(2)) is amended by adding at the end the following:

“(J) CERTAIN ALIENS RESPONSIBLE FOR ABDUCTIONS OR EXTRADITIONS FROM HONG KONG.—Any alien included in the list submitted by the President under section 7(a) of the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act of 2019 is inadmissible.”.

SEC. 7. IDENTIFICATION OF PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR ABDUCTIONS AND FOR OTHER ACTIONS TO SUPPRESS BASIC FREEDOMS IN HONG KONG.

(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter in conjunction with the publication of the report required under section 301 of the Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992 (22 U.S.C. 5731) the President shall submit, to the appropriate congressional committees, a list containing the name of each person who the President determines, based on credible information, is responsible for—

(1) the surveillance, abduction, detention, abuse, or forced confession of Gui Minhai, Lee Bo, Lam Wing-kee, Lui Bo, or Cheung Chi-ping, all of whom are involved in the operation of the Mighty Current Publishing House based in Hong Kong;

(2) the surveillance, abduction, detention, abuse, or forced confession of Guo Zhongxiao or Wang Jianmin, both of whom are involved in the operation of magazine publications based in Hong Kong; or

  1. the rendition to the mainland of the People’s Republic of China of any individual, or the arbitrary detention, torture, or forced confession of any individual after rendition, in connection with the exercise by that individual of internationally recognized human rights in Hong Kong, including such individuals extradited to the mainland of the People's Republic of China under any amended fugitive offenders ordinance in Hong Kong.




 

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